Evolutionary processes as a concept that is more abstract than what we learn from biology (and archeology) should really get more attention, especially from mathematicians and computer scientists. There’s evolution everywhere, from life forms to ideas (like religions, companies etc), sometimes spanning multiple levels of abstraction. You can use evolutionary principles to create heuristics which solve problems “well enough” and efficiently (where the proper solution would be way too slow) – that’s being used pretty commonly now, for example in the design of computer hardware. A better understanding of these principles would probably also aid cancer research, since this (huge) class of illnesses is defined by “cells going rogue and not dying when they’re supposed to”.
Maybe there are concepts which apply to any type of evolution and help speed up or constrain the growth of a population, but have not been found yet because people looked too closely at the details.